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An overview of how companies can measure their ESG efforts

Companies now place a much higher premium on ESG (environmental, social, and governance) factors. Sustainability, environmental effects, and larger social aspects have recently emerged as critical components of ESG efforts, joining more traditional concerns like employee welfare and corporate ethics.

Leaders in the corporate world need a way to track their company's ESG performance, particularly in relation to risk management, because of all the focus on this area. Businesses in oil and gas, for instance, which pose a significant threat to the environment, should be cognizant of the impact they have on the environment and the legal responsibility they may face for pollution. Similarly, businesses that fail to employ ESG metrics to pinpoint their problematic labour practices risk having their reputations tarnished and even facing legal action.


What are ESG metrics?

Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) metrics are a collection of non-financial performance indicators that help evaluate businesses on their social and environmental responsibility. Things like internal governance, environmental effect, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be better understood with the help of these ESG metrics. Through their analysis and tracking, companies can keep tabs on how far they have come in terms of corporate sustainability and ethical practices, which in turn shows how much they have contributed to creating long-term value and improving society.

Why are ESG metrics crucial for companies? 

ESG measures not only help businesses avoid risks but also boost their reputation in the market. Today's consumers care more about how products and services affect society and the environment. They prefer companies that openly share their ESG efforts. Likewise, investors look at ESG scores when choosing where to invest. Companies with low ESG scores might struggle to get funding or catch the eye of new investors.

ESG metrics help businesses see where they can grow and come up with new ideas. For instance, if a company starts using clean energy or eco-friendly technology, they might do better as people like these changes and governments might reward them.

Quantitative vs. qualitative ESG metrics

Now, let's talk about how we measure these ESG things. There are two types: numbers-based ones (called quantitative) and more opinion-based ones (called qualitative). 

Quantitative metrics are like straightforward numbers: How much energy does a company use? How many times do employees leave their jobs? These are easy to compare over time and between companies.

On the flip side, qualitative metrics are a bit trickier. They're about feelings and opinions. For example, how inclusive is a company? What do people think about its work environment? These aren't numbers you can easily compare, but they give us a sense of what the company is really like.

In short, both types of ESG metrics matter. By looking at both, companies get a full picture of how they're doing in terms of ESG and can figure out where they can do better.

 Let's break down some key ESG metrics related to the environment and understand what they mean for companies.

Here are some of the various ESG metrics:

Environmental Metrics focus on how a company interacts with nature and its surroundings. They give insights into whether a company is being eco-friendly or if it's causing harm to the environment.

1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: 

This tells us how much harmful gases a company releases into the air. Think of it like the exhaust from a car but on a bigger scale. Companies that release a lot of these gases, like carbon dioxide, can be seen as contributors to climate change. This can bring them problems in terms of laws, their public image, and even their finances.

2. Energy Usage:

This metric shows how much power a company consumes. Whether it's making products or running its offices, energy is needed. But where does this energy come from? If a company gets its energy from renewable sources like the sun or wind, it's better for the planet than those relying on coal or oil. By studying this, companies can find ways to use energy smarter and save money too.

3. Water Usage:  

Water is essential for many businesses, from manufacturing to agriculture. But just like we can't waste water at home, companies shouldn't either. Some regions have less water available, and companies using a lot of it might face criticism or even penalties if they don't try to use water wisely.

In simpler terms, these metrics help us see if companies are being good stewards of the environment or if they need to make changes for the better.

Social ESG metrics

How can we assess a company's success in terms of ESG social factors? Social metrics are frequently qualitative and subjective. The following are some examples:

Labour procedures. 

ESG indicators can be used to assess how a firm handles its employees and workers in its supply chains. Labour practices that are monitored can include issues like fair wages and safe working conditions, both of which have a quantitative component. Other factors, including nondiscrimination policies, are more subjective.


How diverse is your workforce, and how welcoming is the environment? These indicators are about more than just reputation and compliance. According to research, businesses with a diverse workforce are better positioned to comprehend and address the needs of a varied consumer base.

Participation in the community. 

This metric assesses how a business interacts with the communities in which it works. Philanthropy, volunteerism, and corporate social responsibility (CSR) programmes are examples of community engagement.

Governance metrics

These measures assess the effectiveness of a company's management, as well as its internal controls and corporate rules. Governance indicators can be quantitatively measured and compared across organisations. 

Here are a few examples:

Board diversity is important. 

How diverse is the board of directors of a company? Gender, race, ethnicity, and age are all examples of board diversity.

Executive remuneration. 

This metric measures the pay of a company's senior executives. Executive pay can reveal how well a company is managed and whether its financial incentives for senior executives are aligned with the objectives of its many stakeholders.

Compliance and ethics. 

This is a broad topic that might encompass anti-corruption policies, data privacy safeguards, and support for business integrity and openness.

How can businesses use ESG metrics?

Knowing what you want to measure is just the beginning of the journey. You must also understand how to measure ESG performance and what steps to take to improve if necessary. Here are several possibilities:

Commercial ESG ratings and scores.

Several suppliers provide ESG scoring and ratings services, which assess a company's performance according to a variety of factors. These services, for example, evaluate the company's adherence to ethical and compliance norms, as well as other indicators, often utilising ESG reports generated by the company. The vendors then award a numerical ESG score or a letter grade to the company, which can then be compared to other companies in the same industry or sector.


ESG measures can be used to obtain certifications demonstrating a company's dedication to specified practices. Some of these are well-known, such as Fairtrade certification for ethical labour practices and ISO 14001 certification for environmental management.

Audits are conducted internally or by a third party.

 Companies can also conduct internal audits and assessments or hire third-party auditors to assess their environmental, social, and governance (ESG) performance. This includes, among other things, analysing firm policies and processes, assessing internal monitoring and reporting systems, and conducting interviews with leaders and other staff to identify potential areas for improvement.

Collaboration with external parties. 

Another option is to interact with external stakeholders, including customers, investors, suppliers, and community members, to learn about their expectations and concerns about ESG issues. Conducting surveys, focus groups, or town hall meetings and using the feedback to improve your company's ESG performance and compliance, for example,.

Problems with ESG metrics and solutions

There will always be room for improvement in how businesses handle environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues. A company can't expect to see results unless the measures it uses are specific and easy to implement. Even this can be difficult at times, but these actions can assist:

1. Establish specific objectives

Get your ESG objectives straight so you can concentrate your efforts and see how far you've come. For the following five years, a business may aim to cut its emissions of greenhouse gases by 20%. This can help establish responsibility and guarantee that the endeavours are in line with long-term objectives. However, it can be challenging to identify attainable targets due to the complexity and multidimensional nature of ESG issues. It is imperative that employees, consumers, investors, and community members all participate in the goal-setting process in order to tackle this difficulty. Goals will be more likely to be reasonable and in line with stakeholder priorities if this is done.

2. Keep track of your progress and report on it

It is important for organisations to track and report on their progress towards goals on a regular basis. Consistent reporting is another way to gain the respect and confidence of your stakeholders. Because the necessary data isn't always readily available, consistent, or complete, this is often easier said than done. Further, the measurement and reporting of ESG metrics is not always standardised. To efficiently collect and report ESG data, you might have to put money into new systems or procedures. Collaboration with external data suppliers or the enhancement of data governance capacities are two possible avenues to pursue in this regard. Standardised ESG reporting frameworks, such the GRI Standards, the SASB Standards, or the soon-to-be-released IFRS Sustainability Disclosure Standards, are another useful option.

3. Utilise environmental, social, and governance (ESG) factors while making corporate decisions.

Keep this in mind. To make sure that ESG concerns are evaluated alongside financial performance and risk management, it's important to commit to evaluating them in decision-making processes. A business may weigh the potential negative effects on the environment of a new product line against the potential benefits before making a final investment decision. Current procedures and infrastructure may also need to be adjusted to accommodate this strategy. A lack of comprehension or agreement from important company stakeholders is another potential issue. If that's the case, you'll have to rally the troops to incorporate ESG factors. Executives and other staff could benefit from ESG training and education.

4. Ensure that all parties concerned are actively participating

While it is possible to solicit feedback on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) matters from outside parties, I will concede that this isn't always a walk in the park. The goal is to establish credibility, pinpoint problem areas, and guarantee that ESG initiatives and the indicators used to monitor them are in harmony with the interests of stakeholders. Nevertheless, different stakeholders may hold varying viewpoints and prioritise different things. Furthermore, engaging stakeholders might demand a significant investment of time and resources. Public consultations, focus groups, and surveys are just a few examples of the various shapes it might take. Use a variety of engagement platforms, including social media, public events, and one-on-one meetings, to receive a complete spectrum of input.


Businesses that incorporate ESG factors into their plans hope to be more successful in the future, especially as the globe faces more complicated and interrelated problems including climate change, social inequality, and ethical concerns among corporations. In addition to helping build a more sustainable and egalitarian society, giving ESG problems top priority can benefit companies and their various stakeholders in the long run.

From the many different perspectives and difficulties highlighted above, it is clear that a holistic and cooperative strategy is necessary for assessing and bettering ESG performance. In this process, ESG measures are crucial on a strategic and tactical level.

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